MADE IN JAPAN PDF

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Valignanos basic policy for mission work in Japan was one of accommodation accommodatio to the native culture, in which the missionaries were to show esteem for the culture of Japan, and without destroying any of it, were to transplant on top of that culture the superior Christian culture. To achieve this aim, Valignano believed, it was vital that the missionaries from Europe take active steps to accommodate to Japans culture, traditions, and customs. This attitude of Valignano of striving to accommodate oneself to the native culture was an epoch-making phenomenon in the sixteenth century, when Europeans tended to think of their own culture as the epitome of culture, and to refer to Japanese and Chinese as negroes.

Shortly after his arrival in Japan, Valignano established a language school Collegio at Sakaguchi in mura and had Luis Frois , a Jesuit with the best understanding of Japanese culture, compose a treatise, Tratado em que se contem muito susintae abreviadamente algumas contradioes e diferenas de custumes antre a gente de Europa e esta provincia de Japo, in which he itemized the characteristic differences between Japanese and European culture and contrasted them.

Valignano also instructed the missionaries to change their daily lifestyle to one more in keeping with Japanese ways, and he himself produced in a manual that covered such diverse topics as the manner of associating with Japanese, polite manners, the proper way to eat, the proper way to dress, the architecture of church buildings, and so on Schtte In all these materials the policy of accommodation to Japanese culture can be discerned quite clearly.

From this conference there followed the opening of institutions for primary education, seminario, in Azuchi and Arima, an institution for higher learning, collegio, in Funai present-day ita of Bungo, and a novitiate novisiado for religious candidates in Usuki, also in Bungo. In this way Valignano hoped to take in as students the sons of samurai families, nurture them into outstanding Japanese Christians, accept from among their numbers those who would become Jesuits, and train them to become native priests.

In the Jesuits had held discussions with the Kirishitan daimy of Hizen Nagasaki , and these talks had led to the surveying of the port of Nagasaki and the opening of the port for use as a new base for trade with the Portuguese. The following year the first Portuguese trading ship entered the port, and from then on, until the Portuguese were expelled from the country in , Portuguese trading vessels entered Nagasaki every year.

Thus the town of Nagasaki became the base for the Japan-Portugal trade, and it developed rapidly into a Kirishitan town. In mura Sumitada consulted with Valignano and decided to turn over Nagasaki to the Jesuits as their fief. To ensure a steady financial base, the Jesuits invested in raw silk trade between Nagasaki and Macao, and this produced a large amount of profit for them, but also led later to the criticism that they were too deeply involved in economic activities.

At the time when Valignano was to return to Europe in , he planned to show the Pope the fruits of thirty years of Jesuit missionary work in Japan by sending a delegation of four young boys from the seminario in Arima to Europe, on a tour aimed at collecting donations for the missions from the rulers in Europe.

Valignano also had in mind that these young boys would see for themselves the Christian religion, learning, culture, and state institutions of Europe, and that when they returned to Japan they would pass on what they had learned to their own peers, thus paving the way for the future acculturation of the Christian religion to Japan.

Toyotomi Hideyoshis Order to Ban the Missionaries The four boys of about thirteen years sailed out of Nagasaki in and reached Portugal two years later. Everywhere they were enthusiastically welcomed. In the following year they were received in audience by the Pope, thus the purpose of their mission was sufficiently achieved.

Because Hideyoshi formerly had shown a favorable attitude towards the Kirishitan, this turn in policy after he had brought the country under a unified regime came like a bolt out of the blue. The town of Nagasaki was confiscated and put under the governments direct control. The expulsion order was not strictly followed, however, it forced the missionaries to avoid activities that might catch the public eye. Valignano and the young ambassadors returned to Nagasaki in , eight years after they had set out.

Valignano did not return to Japan as a missionary but as the ambassador of the viceroy of India to Hideyoshi; in this function he was warmly received, together with the boys, by Hideyoshi in the following year.

This aroused the displeasure of the Spanish missionaries from the Orders of Saint Francis, Saint Dominic and Saint Augustin, who repeatedly had tried to launch missionary work in Japan using Manila in the Philippines as their base. When Harada Kiemon, a Nagasaki merchant engaged in foreign trade, counseled to conquer the Philippines, Hideyoshi dispatched an embassy in requesting the Governor of the Philippines to submit.

The Governor sent the Dominican friar Juan Cobo? The friar received a letter in response, but he perished in Taiwan on his return. In the Governor of the Philippines sent a group with the Franciscan friar Pedro Baptista as ambassadors to Japan. They met with Hideyoshi and received permission to build a monastery in Kyoto, while they were in Japan.

While he was negotiating, Baptista was busy doing missionary work claiming that the expulsion order was issued against the Society of Jesus and, therefore, did not concern the Franciscan Order.

At this time the Pope in Rome acknowledged the exclusive right of the Society of Jesus to do mission work in Japan. As a consequence, a confrontation began between the Society of Jesus that was under the patronage of the Portuguese monarch and the Franciscans and other mendicant orders who were under the patronage of the Spanish monarch. Just at that time, in , the Spanish ship San Felipe on a voyage from Manila to Mexico encountered a typhoon and became stranded at Tosa, the island of Shikoku.

Hideyoshi, in need of resources for his Korean adventure, seized the rich cargo of the San Felipe. However, seizure of the ships cargo was unlawful in terms of the Japan-Spain friendship treaty concluded between Hideyoshi and Baptista.

As a consequence of this, six priests and brothers, including Baptista, together with fourteen of their helpers, were arrested in Kyoto. In Osaka three members of the Society of Jesus were arrested, and this brought the total number of those arrested to twenty-four.

They had their ears cut off and were sent off to Nagasaki after they had been paraded through the streets of Kyoto, Osaka, and Sakai as a warning. On their way there they were joined by two more. They were all crucified at Nishizaka in Nagasaki, on 5 February This is known as the martyrdom of the twenty-six Japanese Saints. Oppression of Kirishitan by the Tokugawa Government After Hideyoshis demise the following year a struggle broke out among his successors. Tokugawa Ieyasu emerged as the victor and, in , established the Edo bakufu government.

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In the first ten years the bakufu government was still insecure, and Ieyasu did not yet take a definite stance concerning the Kirishitan. For that reason they experienced their last period of growth. However, in , the Roman Curia scrapped the exclusive right to missionary work of the Society of Jesus, and since Ieyasu became actively involved in trade with the Philippines, the Orders of the Dominicans and the Augustinians joined the Franciscans in missionary work in This resulted in no small confusion in the mission work in Japan.

The development of world history had come to a turning point. In Philip II of Spain had dispatched a supposedly invincible armada against England but had to accept tragic defeat off the coast of Calais. This sealed the ruin of Spain; in her place the Protestant countries England and Holland became the rulers of the globes oceans.

In , the De Liefde, one of five vessels of a fleet Holland had despatched to explore the sea route to East India, drifted into the port of Usuki in Bungo. The ships chief navigator was the Englishman William Adams who was favorably received and became Tokugawa Ieyasus adviser in foreign matters.

When Holland established a trading post in Hirado in , Adams requested that his home country England establish trade with Japan.

This became reality in , when the commander of a vessel of the East India Company, John Saris ca. When instead of the trade with Portugal and Spain trade with England and Holland increasingly gained importance, there was no further diplomatic necessity for the bakufu government to protect the Kirishitan who were a hindrance for the governments stability.

It embarked, therefore, in an all out oppression of the Kirishitan. In the bakufu government issued a nation-wide order that prohibited the Kirishitan religion and expelled the missionaries and influential leaders of the faithful. With this order began the radical suppression of the Kirishitan by the Edo government that lasted for years. All churches and monasteries in the country were distroyed. The missionaries and the influencial Kirishitan daimy Takayama Ukon and Nait Tokuan, together with their families, Nait Julia and fifteen nuns, altogether more than persons, were expelled to Macao or Manila respectively.

At this point 89 of the members of the Society of Jesus residing in Japan, four of ten Franciscans, two of nine Dominicans, two of three Augustinians, and two of seven dioceasan priests were exiled. The others went underground in different areas. The exiled missionaries, however, made every effort to clandestinely return to Japan despite the prohibition and took care of the faithful.

In the years between and , missionaries clandestinely returned, but they were apprehended and met with martyrdom, except for those who renounced their religion. The thirty years after were the period of the most severe persecution. Fortyfour were martyred in the area of Arima in ; fifty-two were put on the stake in Kyoto in ; in it was again Nishizaka in Nagasaki where fifty-five died as martyrs twenty-five of them died on the stake, thirty were beheaded ; sixteen died at Unzen in the boiling hot water of the hot spring in Diverse methods of torture were invented and applied to the Kirishitan.

In the beginning the rather simple methods of beheading, crucifixion, and burning at the stake were used, but they moved the hearts of the onlookers, and far from instilling fear these methods produced the counter effect of stirring peoples faith.

The Christianity in Japan.pdf

For that reason methods of torture were more and more designed to prolong the suffering, and to have the victims renounce their faith rather than to kill them. The most severe form of torture was suspension in a pit. To prevent early death a small hole was made at the temple which allowed the blood to drip out when the victim was hung head down from a scaffold, and the body was tightly bound with a rope to prevent the intestines from turning over. The head was lowered into a pit dug in the ground, and care was taken to have no light enter it in order to frighten the victim also psychologically.

This caused a shock in the whole country, since Ferreira was the highest ranking member of the Society of Jesus in Japan. After he had renounced the faith he was made to marry a Japanese and to cooperate with the interrogation of Kirishitan under the Japanese name of Sawano Chan. Until the ban of the Christian religion was removed in the Meiji period the number of martyrs for whom the circumstances and place of their martyrdom and their names are known reached individuals.

It is said, however, that the number of those about whom nothing is known may be as high as forty thousand. At Nishizaka in Nagasaki alone were martyred.

Under his reign the institutions of the bakufu government were completed, and the oppression of the Kirishitan thoroughly organized. Until his time oppression of the Kirishitan meant first of all the apprehension of missionaries in western Kyushu, although interrogations of ordinary citizens also increased in the whole country.

Important changes took place also in the field of diplomacy. England lost to Holland in the competition for Southeast Asia and focused, therefore, on the administration of India.

In England closed its trading post in Hirado and retreated from Japan. In the following year an embassy from Manila arrived in Japan to reestablish diplomatic and trade relations, but the bakufu government refused, in effect cutting its diplomatic relations with Spain. In order to unilateraly dominate foreign trade and to drive out the Kirishitan Iemitsu consolidated step by step institutions of national isolation.

In an uprising in Amakusa and Shimabara erupted against the cruel land taxes imposed on the farmers by Matsukura Shigemasa, the feudal lord of Shimabara.

The bakufu government, insisting on its view that it was a Kirishitan uprising, strove to promote a thorough ban of the Kirishitan religion and a policy of isolation, and in doing so to strengthen the clan regime.

The Dutch trading station of Hirado was forced to move to Dejima in , a newly built artificial island in the harbor of Nagasaki, and with this Japans foreign trade was only allowed in the port of Nagasaki and from there on was largely restricted to trade with the two countries of Holland and China.

The ban on the Kirishitan religion imposed by the third shogun Iemitsu was thorough. The various measures of oppression aimed at eradicating the Christian religion, such as the system to remunerate denouncers, the fivefamily groups, fumie, the written declarations of renouncing the faith, the system of guarantee by a temple terauke , and the control of family groups ruizoku aratame had a great effect.

All of these institutions remained in force until the end of the bakufu government and functioned as a check on the Kirishitan and a means for the government to control the common population. The system of remunerating denouncers: this was a system of giving financial remunerations to those who denounced Kirishitan that was introduced in Nagasaki. The five-family groups gonin gumi : this was a system of local neighborhood associations based on units of five households, and established for the purpose of group responsibility and mutual assistance within the kumi group.

The systems of remunerating denouncers and of five-family groups were combined in making the apprehension of Kirishitan an obligation of group responsibility.

If a member of ones five-family group accused someone to be a Kirishitan the remaining four households were not censured, but if a member was accused by someone of another group all members of a five-family group were executed. Fumie: In order to test whether somebody was a believer or not the person was made to trod on an image of Christ or Mary, the objects of belief, as a means of psychological torture. The procedure served to discover believers, but also to prevent a relapse because it had to be repeated every year even after one had renounced the faith.

Written declaration of renunciation korobi kakimono : This was a written document in which the person who had thrown away the Kirishitan belief swore before the deities of Japan and before the Christian God not to convert again. It was believed that divine punishment would strike those who broke the oath. From the oath was imposed nation wide. Introduced nationwide in , the system remained in force until the end of the bakufu government.

Lists for the control of family groups ruizoku aratamech : In the bakufu government established a special system of surveillance over the family groups ruizoku of Kirishitan martyrs.

If any change occurred in a family group such as death, birth, marriage, change of residence, adoption, entering religion, change of name, divorce or separation, disowning, and a change of ones religious affiliation, it was declared obligatory to file a written notice. The Period of Underground Existence The bakufu government of Edo perfected institutions to oppress the Kirishitan and imposed a radical control.

To counter this the Kirishitan side organized confuraria Confraria, confraternities or groups of believers and applied its imagination to think of various ways of how to avoid the watchful eye of the authorities. And yet, from time to time what was called kuzure crumblings , i. In , for example, the Kri kuzure erupted and persons were arrested in Kri village in the domain of the mura clan.

Forty-one were beheaded, seventy-eight died in custody, twenty were sentenced to life in prison, and ninety were acquitted. In the years between and the Bungo kuzure occurred in the districts ita and Kusu of Bungo, where persons were arrested. Fifty-seven of them were executed, fifty-nine died in prison, and sixty-five were released. In the Bin kuzure, which erupted in in the Kani district of Mino, twenty-four persons were arrested, however, in were beheaded, in , and another thirty-three in Towards the end of the bakufu government, in , the Amakusa kuzure broke out in Amakusa of Higo, and underground Kirishitan were arrested, but partly due to their great number they could not be punished as Kirishitan should have been, instead they were treated as believers deceived by a dubious religion and followers of a mistaken alien religion, and thus they were spared severe punishment.

Documents that would allow us to inquire about Kirishitan belief during the time of underground existence are extremely rare. Since not a single missionary remained, there were no reports addressed to the outside world, and since the believers were forced to convert to Buddhism such documents 16 MIYAZAKI KENTAR would almost certainly have been destroyed because their discovery would have put ones life in danger.

Texts of prayers and teachings were not transmitted in writing but orally by word of mouth. Without the benefit of even a single leader, the faith of the Kirishitan changed little by little during the long time of years of underground existence and merged with indigenous Japanese beliefs.

The Resurrection of the Kirishitan the Edo government concluded trade agreements with the five countries England, America, Russia, France and Holland, abandoned the policy of national isolation, and opened the ports of Hakodate, Yokohama and Nagasaki the following year.

When Father Girard of the Paris Society of Foreign Missions, who had been in Okinawa praying that Japan would again be opened to mission work, heard of the reopening of the country, he immediately went to Yokohama, and once there he built the Yokohama tenshud church. Father Furet came to Nagasaki in and began the construction of the ura tenshud, which was completed the following year by Father Petitjean.

Nagasaki is the central location where Japans Kirishitan lived. In Urakami, where a great number of Nagasakis Kirishitan was living underground, the first Urakami kuzure broke out in , the second in , and a third one in In , underground Kirishitan of Urakami who had longed that the missionaries would return met, after years, in the newly completed church of Urakami with Father Petitjean who on his side had been praying to meet Japanese Kirishitan, whom he had been hoping had survived. This dramatic event is called the resurrection of the Kirishitan.

The underground Kirishitan who met with the priest whose coming they had been awaiting could not tread on the sacred image or deny their Kirishitan faith any longer.

They appeared before the officials to request the nullification of their conversion kaishin modoshi , i. The daimy of the war-torn country, attracted throughout by prospects of a profitable trade with Portugal, gave permission for missionary work in their fiefdoms, but when the Portuguese ships did not enter their ports and they realized their hopes would go unfulfilled, they switched their positions and began to persecute the Kirishitan.

Ten years after Xavier had landed in Japan, the number of Kirishitan converts stood at around 6,; in they numbered about 20,; and in , thirty years after Xaviers arrival, they had increased to , By , a little over fifty years after Xavier, the number had increased to approximately , Finally, after eighty years of missionary work, the number of converts in the early s totalled , The total population of Japan at that time is estimated to have been 12,,, so that figure is equivalent to approximately ten times the percentage of Catholics in presentday Japan.

The Christianity in Japan.pdf

With the lords of fiefs united with the populace of their fiefs in Kirishitan fiefdoms, the lords urged Buddhist monks to convert, and those who refused were banished from their fiefs, temple properties were seized, and temples were handed over to missionaries to be turned into churches. The strongest motive of these daimy with the exception of a few like Takayama Ukon behind their forceful promotion of the Christianizing of their fiefs was their interest in trade with the Portuguese merchants.

In is unclear how many of the believers resulting from such mass conversions really understood the basics of the Christian religion when they received baptism. Alexander Valignano, too, the vicar-general and visitator of East Asia for the Society of Jesus, adopted on his visit to Japan in the fundamental policy of conversion from the top stratum of society to lower strata.

Thirty years after Xavier, Valignano was to ascertain the result and state of the missionary endeavor, and he was entrusted with the important task of drawing up policies aimed at expanding missionary activity. Valignanos basic policy for mission work in Japan was one of accommodation accommodatio to the native culture, in which the missionaries were to show esteem for the culture of Japan, and without destroying any of it, were to transplant on top of that culture the superior Christian culture.

To achieve this aim, Valignano believed, it was vital that the missionaries from Europe take active steps to accommodate to Japans culture, traditions, and customs.

This attitude of Valignano of striving to accommodate oneself to the native culture was an epoch-making phenomenon in the sixteenth century, when Europeans tended to think of their own culture as the epitome of culture, and to refer to Japanese and Chinese as negroes.

Shortly after his arrival in Japan, Valignano established a language school Collegio at Sakaguchi in mura and had Luis Frois , a Jesuit with the best understanding of Japanese culture, compose a treatise, Tratado em que se contem muito susintae abreviadamente algumas contradioes e diferenas de custumes antre a gente de Europa e esta provincia de Japo, in which he itemized the characteristic differences between Japanese and European culture and contrasted them.

Valignano also instructed the missionaries to change their daily lifestyle to one more in keeping with Japanese ways, and he himself produced in a manual that covered such diverse topics as the manner of associating with Japanese, polite manners, the proper way to eat, the proper way to dress, the architecture of church buildings, and so on Schtte In all these materials the policy of accommodation to Japanese culture can be discerned quite clearly.

From this conference there followed the opening of institutions for primary education, seminario, in Azuchi and Arima, an institution for higher learning, collegio, in Funai present-day ita of Bungo, and a novitiate novisiado for religious candidates in Usuki, also in Bungo. In this way Valignano hoped to take in as students the sons of samurai families, nurture them into outstanding Japanese Christians, accept from among their numbers those who would become Jesuits, and train them to become native priests.

In the Jesuits had held discussions with the Kirishitan daimy of Hizen Nagasaki , and these talks had led to the surveying of the port of Nagasaki and the opening of the port for use as a new base for trade with the Portuguese.

The following year the first Portuguese trading ship entered the port, and from then on, until the Portuguese were expelled from the country in , Portuguese trading vessels entered Nagasaki every year. Thus the town of Nagasaki became the base for the Japan-Portugal trade, and it developed rapidly into a Kirishitan town. In mura Sumitada consulted with Valignano and decided to turn over Nagasaki to the Jesuits as their fief.

To ensure a steady financial base, the Jesuits invested in raw silk trade between Nagasaki and Macao, and this produced a large amount of profit for them, but also led later to the criticism that they were too deeply involved in economic activities. At the time when Valignano was to return to Europe in , he planned to show the Pope the fruits of thirty years of Jesuit missionary work in Japan by sending a delegation of four young boys from the seminario in Arima to Europe, on a tour aimed at collecting donations for the missions from the rulers in Europe.

Valignano also had in mind that these young boys would see for themselves the Christian religion, learning, culture, and state institutions of Europe, and that when they returned to Japan they would pass on what they had learned to their own peers, thus paving the way for the future acculturation of the Christian religion to Japan.

Toyotomi Hideyoshis Order to Ban the Missionaries The four boys of about thirteen years sailed out of Nagasaki in and reached Portugal two years later.

Everywhere they were enthusiastically welcomed. In the following year they were received in audience by the Pope, thus the purpose of their mission was sufficiently achieved.

Because Hideyoshi formerly had shown a favorable attitude towards the Kirishitan, this turn in policy after he had brought the country under a unified regime came like a bolt out of the blue. The town of Nagasaki was confiscated and put under the governments direct control. The expulsion order was not strictly followed, however, it forced the missionaries to avoid activities that might catch the public eye.

Valignano and the young ambassadors returned to Nagasaki in , eight years after they had set out. Valignano did not return to Japan as a missionary but as the ambassador of the viceroy of India to Hideyoshi; in this function he was warmly received, together with the boys, by Hideyoshi in the following year. This aroused the displeasure of the Spanish missionaries from the Orders of Saint Francis, Saint Dominic and Saint Augustin, who repeatedly had tried to launch missionary work in Japan using Manila in the Philippines as their base.

When Harada Kiemon, a Nagasaki merchant engaged in foreign trade, counseled to conquer the Philippines, Hideyoshi dispatched an embassy in requesting the Governor of the Philippines to submit. The Governor sent the Dominican friar Juan Cobo?

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The friar received a letter in response, but he perished in Taiwan on his return. In the Governor of the Philippines sent a group with the Franciscan friar Pedro Baptista as ambassadors to Japan. They met with Hideyoshi and received permission to build a monastery in Kyoto, while they were in Japan. While he was negotiating, Baptista was busy doing missionary work claiming that the expulsion order was issued against the Society of Jesus and, therefore, did not concern the Franciscan Order.

At this time the Pope in Rome acknowledged the exclusive right of the Society of Jesus to do mission work in Japan. As a consequence, a confrontation began between the Society of Jesus that was under the patronage of the Portuguese monarch and the Franciscans and other mendicant orders who were under the patronage of the Spanish monarch.

Just at that time, in , the Spanish ship San Felipe on a voyage from Manila to Mexico encountered a typhoon and became stranded at Tosa, the island of Shikoku. Hideyoshi, in need of resources for his Korean adventure, seized the rich cargo of the San Felipe. However, seizure of the ships cargo was unlawful in terms of the Japan-Spain friendship treaty concluded between Hideyoshi and Baptista. As a consequence of this, six priests and brothers, including Baptista, together with fourteen of their helpers, were arrested in Kyoto.

In Osaka three members of the Society of Jesus were arrested, and this brought the total number of those arrested to twenty-four. They had their ears cut off and were sent off to Nagasaki after they had been paraded through the streets of Kyoto, Osaka, and Sakai as a warning. On their way there they were joined by two more. They were all crucified at Nishizaka in Nagasaki, on 5 February This is known as the martyrdom of the twenty-six Japanese Saints.

Oppression of Kirishitan by the Tokugawa Government After Hideyoshis demise the following year a struggle broke out among his successors. Tokugawa Ieyasu emerged as the victor and, in , established the Edo bakufu government. In the first ten years the bakufu government was still insecure, and Ieyasu did not yet take a definite stance concerning the Kirishitan. For that reason they experienced their last period of growth.

However, in , the Roman Curia scrapped the exclusive right to missionary work of the Society of Jesus, and since Ieyasu became actively involved in trade with the Philippines, the Orders of the Dominicans and the Augustinians joined the Franciscans in missionary work in This resulted in no small confusion in the mission work in Japan.

The development of world history had come to a turning point. In Philip II of Spain had dispatched a supposedly invincible armada against England but had to accept tragic defeat off the coast of Calais. This sealed the ruin of Spain; in her place the Protestant countries England and Holland became the rulers of the globes oceans.

In , the De Liefde, one of five vessels of a fleet Holland had despatched to explore the sea route to East India, drifted into the port of Usuki in Bungo. The ships chief navigator was the Englishman William Adams who was favorably received and became Tokugawa Ieyasus adviser in foreign matters. When Holland established a trading post in Hirado in , Adams requested that his home country England establish trade with Japan. This became reality in , when the commander of a vessel of the East India Company, John Saris ca.

When instead of the trade with Portugal and Spain trade with England and Holland increasingly gained importance, there was no further diplomatic necessity for the bakufu government to protect the Kirishitan who were a hindrance for the governments stability. It embarked, therefore, in an all out oppression of the Kirishitan. In the bakufu government issued a nation-wide order that prohibited the Kirishitan religion and expelled the missionaries and influential leaders of the faithful.

With this order began the radical suppression of the Kirishitan by the Edo government that lasted for years. All churches and monasteries in the country were distroyed. The missionaries and the influencial Kirishitan daimy Takayama Ukon and Nait Tokuan, together with their families, Nait Julia and fifteen nuns, altogether more than persons, were expelled to Macao or Manila respectively.

At this point 89 of the members of the Society of Jesus residing in Japan, four of ten Franciscans, two of nine Dominicans, two of three Augustinians, and two of seven dioceasan priests were exiled. The others went underground in different areas. The exiled missionaries, however, made every effort to clandestinely return to Japan despite the prohibition and took care of the faithful. In the years between and , missionaries clandestinely returned, but they were apprehended and met with martyrdom, except for those who renounced their religion.

The thirty years after were the period of the most severe persecution. Fortyfour were martyred in the area of Arima in ; fifty-two were put on the stake in Kyoto in ; in it was again Nishizaka in Nagasaki where fifty-five died as martyrs twenty-five of them died on the stake, thirty were beheaded ; sixteen died at Unzen in the boiling hot water of the hot spring in Diverse methods of torture were invented and applied to the Kirishitan.

In the beginning the rather simple methods of beheading, crucifixion, and burning at the stake were used, but they moved the hearts of the onlookers, and far from instilling fear these methods produced the counter effect of stirring peoples faith.

For that reason methods of torture were more and more designed to prolong the suffering, and to have the victims renounce their faith rather than to kill them. The most severe form of torture was suspension in a pit. To prevent early death a small hole was made at the temple which allowed the blood to drip out when the victim was hung head down from a scaffold, and the body was tightly bound with a rope to prevent the intestines from turning over.

The head was lowered into a pit dug in the ground, and care was taken to have no light enter it in order to frighten the victim also psychologically. This caused a shock in the whole country, since Ferreira was the highest ranking member of the Society of Jesus in Japan. After he had renounced the faith he was made to marry a Japanese and to cooperate with the interrogation of Kirishitan under the Japanese name of Sawano Chan.

Until the ban of the Christian religion was removed in the Meiji period the number of martyrs for whom the circumstances and place of their martyrdom and their names are known reached individuals.

It is said, however, that the number of those about whom nothing is known may be as high as forty thousand. At Nishizaka in Nagasaki alone were martyred. Under his reign the institutions of the bakufu government were completed, and the oppression of the Kirishitan thoroughly organized. Until his time oppression of the Kirishitan meant first of all the apprehension of missionaries in western Kyushu, although interrogations of ordinary citizens also increased in the whole country.

Important changes took place also in the field of diplomacy. England lost to Holland in the competition for Southeast Asia and focused, therefore, on the administration of India.

In England closed its trading post in Hirado and retreated from Japan. In the following year an embassy from Manila arrived in Japan to reestablish diplomatic and trade relations, but the bakufu government refused, in effect cutting its diplomatic relations with Spain. In order to unilateraly dominate foreign trade and to drive out the Kirishitan Iemitsu consolidated step by step institutions of national isolation.

In an uprising in Amakusa and Shimabara erupted against the cruel land taxes imposed on the farmers by Matsukura Shigemasa, the feudal lord of Shimabara. The bakufu government, insisting on its view that it was a Kirishitan uprising, strove to promote a thorough ban of the Kirishitan religion and a policy of isolation, and in doing so to strengthen the clan regime.

The Dutch trading station of Hirado was forced to move to Dejima in , a newly built artificial island in the harbor of Nagasaki, and with this Japans foreign trade was only allowed in the port of Nagasaki and from there on was largely restricted to trade with the two countries of Holland and China.

The ban on the Kirishitan religion imposed by the third shogun Iemitsu was thorough. The various measures of oppression aimed at eradicating the Christian religion, such as the system to remunerate denouncers, the fivefamily groups, fumie, the written declarations of renouncing the faith, the system of guarantee by a temple terauke , and the control of family groups ruizoku aratame had a great effect.

All of these institutions remained in force until the end of the bakufu government and functioned as a check on the Kirishitan and a means for the government to control the common population.

The system of remunerating denouncers: this was a system of giving financial remunerations to those who denounced Kirishitan that was introduced in Nagasaki. The five-family groups gonin gumi : this was a system of local neighborhood associations based on units of five households, and established for the purpose of group responsibility and mutual assistance within the kumi group.

The systems of remunerating denouncers and of five-family groups were combined in making the apprehension of Kirishitan an obligation of group responsibility.

If a member of ones five-family group accused someone to be a Kirishitan the remaining four households were not censured, but if a member was accused by someone of another group all members of a five-family group were executed. Fumie: In order to test whether somebody was a believer or not the person was made to trod on an image of Christ or Mary, the objects of belief, as a means of psychological torture.

The procedure served to discover believers, but also to prevent a relapse because it had to be repeated every year even after one had renounced the faith. Written declaration of renunciation korobi kakimono : This was a written document in which the person who had thrown away the Kirishitan belief swore before the deities of Japan and before the Christian God not to convert again.

It was believed that divine punishment would strike those who broke the oath. From the oath was imposed nation wide. Introduced nationwide in , the system remained in force until the end of the bakufu government. Lists for the control of family groups ruizoku aratamech : In the bakufu government established a special system of surveillance over the family groups ruizoku of Kirishitan martyrs. If any change occurred in a family group such as death, birth, marriage, change of residence, adoption, entering religion, change of name, divorce or separation, disowning, and a change of ones religious affiliation, it was declared obligatory to file a written notice.

The Period of Underground Existence The bakufu government of Edo perfected institutions to oppress the Kirishitan and imposed a radical control. To counter this the Kirishitan side organized confuraria Confraria, confraternities or groups of believers and applied its imagination to think of various ways of how to avoid the watchful eye of the authorities. And yet, from time to time what was called kuzure crumblings , i.

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In , for example, the Kri kuzure erupted and persons were arrested in Kri village in the domain of the mura clan. Forty-one were beheaded, seventy-eight died in custody, twenty were sentenced to life in prison, and ninety were acquitted. In the years between and the Bungo kuzure occurred in the districts ita and Kusu of Bungo, where persons were arrested. Fifty-seven of them were executed, fifty-nine died in prison, and sixty-five were released.

In the Bin kuzure, which erupted in in the Kani district of Mino, twenty-four persons were arrested, however, in were beheaded, in , and another thirty-three in Towards the end of the bakufu government, in , the Amakusa kuzure broke out in Amakusa of Higo, and underground Kirishitan were arrested, but partly due to their great number they could not be punished as Kirishitan should have been, instead they were treated as believers deceived by a dubious religion and followers of a mistaken alien religion, and thus they were spared severe punishment.

Documents that would allow us to inquire about Kirishitan belief during the time of underground existence are extremely rare. Since not a single missionary remained, there were no reports addressed to the outside world, and since the believers were forced to convert to Buddhism such documents 16 MIYAZAKI KENTAR would almost certainly have been destroyed because their discovery would have put ones life in danger.

Texts of prayers and teachings were not transmitted in writing but orally by word of mouth.Valignano also instructed the missionaries to change their daily lifestyle to one more in keeping with Japanese ways. I agreed to serve as general editor of such a volume if given time to recruit a team of specialists to contribute chapters on their own areas of expertise.

Because we can not forget how the tourism in! Without the benefit of even a single leader, the faith of the Kirishitan changed little by little during the long time of years of underground existence and merged with indigenous Japanese beliefs. With hindsight.